General Properties Of Acids And Bases

Acids and bases are two important groups of compounds in chemistry. It is useful to know the structure, properties, benefits and harms of these substances. Firstly we will define them;


The compounds which can give hydrogen ion to aqueous solutions are called acid. In our daily life, there is some acid in foods such as pickles, apples, lemons, yogurt and cola.

Some Important Acids:

  • Hydrochloric acid ; HCL
  • Nitric acid; HNO3
  • Acetic acid; CH3COOH
  • Sulfuric acid ; H2SO4
  • Formic acid; HCOOH
  • Phosphoric acid ; H3PO4


In aqueous solutions, substances containing hydroxide (OH–) ions are called bases. In our daily life, there is some base in such as soap, drain opener, shampoo.

Some Important Bases:

  • Sodium hydroxide ; NaOH
  • Potassium hydroxide ; KOH
  • Ammonia ; NH3
  • Calcium hydroxide ; Ca (OH) 2

General properties of acids

  • It gives hydrogen ion to aqueous solutions.
  • It effects the blue litmus paper and turns it into red.
  • It conducts electrical current in aqueous solutions.
  • The taste of dilute solutions is sour.
  • It acts on metals to release hydrogen gas. It disrupts the metals and disrupts their structures.
  • It has a burning effect on ingredients. When the ant bites, the formic acid in the ant shows a burning effect.
  • The pH value is less than 7.

General Properties of Bases

  • They can ionize in water.
  • Their taste is bitter.
  • Hand gives a feeling of gliding.
  • They turn the litmus paper from red to blue.
  • They emit H2 gas with amphoteric metals.
  • The pH value is greater than 7.
  • When they dissolve in water, they transmit electricity.



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